- Choose a Target
- Pick a Linux Distro and Release
- Install a Crouton Chroot
- Update a Crouton Chroot
- Encrypt a Chroot
- Back Up a Chroot
- Delete a Chroot
Crouton stores the Linux systems you install in “chroots.” You can have multiple chroots. The commands below will help you work with and manage those chroots.
Choose a Target
After downloading the Crouton script to your Downloads folder, you can run the following command to see a list of targets:
$ sh ~/Downloads/crouton -t help Available targets: audio Support audio playback via Chromium OS's audio system. Requires: core chrome Google Chrome browser, stable channel. Requires: x11 chrome-beta Google Chrome browser, beta channel. Requires: x11 chrome-dev Google Chrome browser, dev channel. Requires: x11 chromium Chromium browser. Uses the distro's version, which may be old. Requires: x11 cli-extra Basic CLI tools such as ssh. Requires: core core Performs core system configuration. Most users would want this. e17 Installs the enlightenment desktop environment. (Approx. 50MB) Requires: gtk-extra extension Clipboard synchronization and URL handling with Chromium OS. Requires: x11 gnome Installs the GNOME desktop environment. (Approx. 400MB) Requires: gtk-extra gnome-desktop Installs GNOME along with common applications. (Approx. 1100MB) Requires: gnome gtk-extra GTK-based tools including gdebi, gksu, and a simple browser. Requires: x11 kde Installs a minimal KDE desktop environment. (Approx. 600MB) Requires: x11 kde-desktop Installs KDE along with common applications. (Approx. 1000MB) Requires: kde keyboard Adds support for Chromebook keyboard special keys. Requires: x11 lxde Installs the LXDE desktop environment. (Approx. 200MB) Requires: gtk-extra lxde-desktop Installs LXDE along with common applications. (Approx. 800MB) Requires: lxde touch Touchscreen and limited generic gesture support. Requires: x11 unity Installs the Unity desktop environment. (Approx. 700MB) Requires: gtk-extra unity-desktop Installs Unity along with common applications. (Approx. 1100MB) Requires: unity x11 X11 via autodetected backend. Does not install any desktop environment. xbmc Installs the XBMC media player. (Approx. 140MB) Requires: x11 xfce Installs the Xfce desktop environment. (Approx. 250MB) Requires: gtk-extra xfce-desktop Installs Xfce along with common applications. (Approx. 1200MB) Requires: xfce xiwi X.org X11 backend running unaccelerated in a Chromium OS window. Requires: audio extension xorg X.Org X11 backend. Enables GPU acceleration on supported platforms. Requires: audio
Pick a Linux Distro and Release
Crouton still uses Ubuntu 12.04 as its default Linux distribution, but you can install other releases of Ubuntu, Debian, or Kali Linux. Specify a release with -r name while running the Crouton command.
$ sh ~/Downloads/crouton -r list Insufficient permissions to refresh crouton installer. Recognized debian releases: potato! woody! sarge! etch! lenny! squeeze! wheezy jessie stretch sid Recognized kali releases: moto! kali! sana! kali-rolling Recognized ubuntu releases: warty! hoary! breezy! dapper! edgy! feisty! gutsy! hardy! intrepid! jaunty! karmic! lucid! maverick! natty! oneiric! precise quantal! raring! saucy! trusty utopic! vivid! wily! xenial yakkety* zesty* Releases marked with ! are upstream end-of-life, and should be avoided. Releases marked with * are unsupported, but may work with some effort.
Install a Crouton Chroot
After you choose one release for one linux distribution and its desktop environment, for example, you choose “Ubuntu 16.04 LTS and unity desktop”, the argument for
r option is
xenial(Note: this is the codename of Ubuntu 16.04 LTS), and argument for
t option is
unity, then the whole command is as follows:
sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -r xenial -t unity
You can also install Ubuntu 14.04 LTS with another command,
sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -r trusty -t unity
In the above two commands,
trusty is the name of corresponding crouton chroot respectively.
Update a Crouton Chroot
Run the following command from the Chrome OS shell, replacing “name” with the name of your chroot. If you didn’t specify a name, it’s probably the name of the release you installed — for example, “trusty” or “precise.”
sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -u -n name
Encrypt a Chroot
When installing a Crouton chroot with the installer script, add -e to the command to encrypt your chroot.
sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -u -e -n name
Back Up a Chroot
sudo edit-chroot -b name
sudo edit-chroot -r name
Delete a Chroot
sudo delete-chroot name
sudo delete-chroot stretch Unmounting /mnt/stateful_partition/crouton/chroots/stretch... Delete /mnt/stateful_partition/crouton/chroots/stretch? [a/y/N] y Finished deleting /mnt/stateful_partition/crouton/chroots/stretch